(i) Cotton fibre is obtained from the flowers of cotton plants. There were coarse and fine hackling combs used in succession to receive very fine and long fibres. In 2017 I left the flax too long on the ground, so that the pectin in between the elementary fibres decomposed into smaller pieces. Flax Fibre Extraction Techniques in the Late Middle Ages, Institutional Members Higher Education Centres, Institutional Members Groups & Associations, Registration Form for Institutional Members, The Steinzeitpark Dithmarschen (DE): Concept and Development of a Visitor Oriented Educational Centre for Sustainable Development, Experimental Archaeology in Latvia: some Possibilities for Future Development, Have you got the tine? Fiber does grow on the outer layers of the plant and not within the stem. On its surface, linen production research is simple as there is a large corpus of books available; however, the majority of these date to the last three centuries. Chr.). These finds suggest that the flax break, which have been preserved until the last century in the villages of northern Germany, date to the Early Middle Ages. This method is more environmentally friendly than water retting. Scheuermeier, P., 1956. This is only a short overview on flax fibre extraction in the Middle Ages. The retting breaks down the pectin that holds the fibers to the core. Q. Water retting seemed to take less time and the fibres were brighter and more uniform, than those achieved with dew retting. Methods of retting nettle fibres. There are two depictions from the Middle Ages. LinkedIn Group: EA I have tried to break the flax with a wooden club and it works, but restricted that to splitting the stems lengthwise and the work takes longer. Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. Bauernwerk in Italien. The simplest dryers are made from a simple pit, where the flax is laid on a gridiron over a small fire, which was also a big fire hazard. The author sets the step of smoothing after the hackling, which matches the depictions from the House Zur Kunkel. ATM said the development team is working to increase capacity of the machine, which bypasses the retting of hemp stalks in water, and can also strip away fiber from nettle and linen plants when adjusted. While discussing fibre extraction methods, it is essential to mention the decortication process – the extraction of green fibre without retting. The Kunkel house fresco shows a woman who is probably scutching and labelled “Thesens”, which is somehow connected to scutching (Wunderlich, 1996, pp.53-54). Again, the greatest disadvantage is dependency on the weather. In order to achieve an even ret, the flax must either be laid so thin that the ground can still be seen, or if laid thicker must be turned from time to time. 0% average accuracy. 1. A pull-out hackling comb, which was very coarse was used for pulling out the branched flower stems, something that isn’t done everywhere. (iii) The cotton plant requires warm climate. There are archaeological finds of wooden clubs from Bergen (Bryggen), that could have been used in flax processing that date back to the late medieval period, as well as finds from Novgorod (Oye, 1988, p.28; Kolchin, 1989, p.256). Tafelband, Wiesbaden. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Fibre rupture occurred as abraded agains t standard worsted fabric (Abdullah et al., 2006) During the course of abrasion in textiles, fibre to fibre cohesion plays an important role, usually influenced by yarn twist or close fibr e packing. In several depictions and woodcarvings, the earliest in 1526 by Albrecht Glockendon of Nürnberg, show flax laid on a block and a worker with a wooden club in a raised hand. Although these archaeological finds lack the evidence of plant remains to clarify what was actually dried inside (Berthold, 1999, p.131). As a result, I had to collect the information on medieval tools and manufacturing process myself. If however the flax is left too long, the cell walls of the fibres are damaged. • The net income is increased by at least Rs. However, hemp has very fine fibres at the centre of the stem (Körber-Grohne, 1987, p.383). All these changes are connected with the structural & chemical modifications occurring in the fibres. Heat setting by ta 1. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. The hemp fibres are separated by ratting, which is the process of decaying pectin that binds the hemp fibres to the core of the stem. There are 13th century songs about scutching. This is unlikely to be an image of wool combs as they are normally depicted as pairs with only one or two rows. If the temperature is too high the fibre will be damaged, which is why artificial drying was not always used. This causes a large amount of the woody outer hull to drop off. There is an illumination from France, dating to the first half of 15th century, also depicting this process (British Library Royal 16 G V f. 56 Gaia Caecilia). Question 5. At some point the flax break was invented. (iv) Cotton is mainly cultivated in Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc. Flachs Züchtung, Anbau, Verarbeitung. (v) Jute is used to make ropes, mats, packaging, material, sacks. Freshwater retting is used for fully ripe coconut husks, and saltwater retting is used for green husks. Field retting is the most practical method of hemp fiber production for farmers in the US, but little research has been done on the microbiota associated with hemp stalks during field retting, or on applied practices that improve the quality and consistency of the fiber without substantially increasing cost. Introduction. Heat setting is a process of imparting dimensional stability of fibers or yarns with successive heating and cooling in dry and most condition. (e) Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant. It can easily be blended with other fibres. Of course, I didn’t reach the full yield, that a good ret would deliver. Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by breakingthem and then scraping or scutchingthem off which is done by beating with blunt wooden or metal blades either by hand or mechanically. Archäologie im Rheinland. The short fibres combed are called tow and can be carded by hand and spun as well. 252-266. From the Middle Ages on, there is written and archaeological evidence of drying in ovens (Lipp, 1989, pp.8-9) or special drying units that differed from region to region. For the same reason, paintings of flax processing by the Nürnberg painter Albrecht Glockendon (1526 and 1535), as well the Flemish painter Simon Bening (1515) are associated with November. The research for this project was able to trace a lot of pre-industrial tools to the Middle Ages and even prior to this time. Pellan ja hampun viljely ja moukkaus suomessa. called retting 14. We have replicated the tools from the depiction in Wienhausen and from the find in Braunschweig. Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987] A) Bacillus B) Clostridium C) Nitrobacter D) Rhizobium Ask for details ; Follow Report by Sundarallu563 05.01.2018 Log in to add a comment Answers CaptainBrainly Genius; HEYA!!! Save. Science. Slideshare | Vimeo, EXARC LinkedIn Page Gerig, W., 1913. Die Aufbereitung von Flachs und Hanf im Spiegel behördlicher Maßnahmen 1463 – 1882. (b) Fibre from retted jute is extracted by (viii) Hands with jerks and pulls (c) Separation of fibres from jute stem (iv) Retting (d) Compressed bundles of cotton (iii) Bales (e) Cotton is collected from cotton plants by (v) Hand picking (f) Separation of cotton from seeds (ix) Ginning (g) Loose rope of cotton fibres (ii) Sliver (h) Animal fibres You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. From the 15th century on, there were plenty of bans on letting flax ret in fishing waters (Reutter, 1979, p.16). The third method works by drawing the flax through a ‘Rippler’, which is a coarse comb that peels the seed vessels from the stems. (ii) Spinning is the process of changing fibre into yarn. (ii) Alluvial soil is most suitable for growing jute plants. (i) Fibres that are manufactured artificially in factories using different chemicals are called synthetic fibres. A single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is: (a) gimming (b) spinning (c) weaving (d) knitting. The frescos in house Zur Kunkel, Constance dating to the 14th century (Wunderlich, 1996, p.29) showed a different aspect to production of cloth. The plant’s taproot means the plant can be extracted from the ground easily and the full length of the plant fibres is available for processing. The pulled flax is set up in bundles, like little chapels, and left in the field to dry. If ‘boken’ is used as a preparation for breaking, then it makes the later step easier to accomplish. Harzheim, G., 1989. Pectin, while often low in amounts, is strategically located and binds cell walls within plants . (i) Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of jute plants. Flax (summer flax) is an annual plant usually sown in mid-April when there are the best conditions for growing with sufficient rainfall. Early Egyptian wall paintings show the flax plant being harvested by pulling the plant out of the ground root (Klebs, 1915, pp.54-55) and all, a practice that has survived to today. This allows the … 2321 KA Leiden The bundles are made to sink in stagnant water of a pond for a few days and then the gummy skin rots out to separate fibres. The first process is the retting of the plant stems to dissolve the pectin which fixes the fibres to the stalk. Körber-Grohne, U., 1987. Flax is harvested when the lower third of the stem begins to turn yellowish and loses its leaves. Pectin. WHY HEAT SETTING IS DONE ….? Darren im Gebiet zwischen Neckar und Main. In: Der Flachsbau - Seine wirtschaftliche Bedeutung, Anbau, Gewinnung und Verwertung, Berlin. (v) Knitting can be done by using only one … Heidelberg. Preparation of yarn from fibres by spinning. Older texts, while available, tend to concentrate on the textiles themselves and their trade. If the weather is bad, it can take a very long time for the flax to dry or, in the worst case, the whole harvest is lost. In this process fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. • Retting is completed within 7-9days in comparison to 18-21 days required under conventional whole plant retting. However, 19th century Italian texts seem to explain the process. Haarnagel, W., 1979. They make use of borehole water that is heated by solar power for their dye baths. When the jute plant is in the flowering stage, it is harvested. If done correctly, the fibres can be extracted easily from the core. Flachs und Leinen zwischen Leine und Weser. The oldest depiction of a flax break is from a 15th century fresco in the parish church of Saak/ Austria, which dates to 1465. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were wa... Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. In the Middle Ages, probably only one plant was cultivated that provided both (Knöchel and Vogeler, 2001 p.115). Flad, M., 1984. The fibrous stem after retting has to be mechanically processed to extract of fibre of good quality. There seems to be different experiences, in which order the work is done. Heat setting. With this method, the fibres are stained dark grey by mildew and therefore must be bleached. It consists of a large long heavy wooden block with a longitudinal groove, attached to a wooden frame. This brings the fibres together to form a yarn. This is industrially done with pairs of rotating rollers, which crush the shives. to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. Inside the plant, flax fibres are arranged in a circle around the central core of the stem. Fibre to fabric. It is not clear whether “dehsen” stands for beetling or breaking of the flax. If the stem is cut this encourages bacterial growth causing an uneven retting of the flax (Birkigt-Quentin, Busse and Schäfer, 1995, p.8). Ciba-Rundschau Nr. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. The retted fibres, being aggregates of elongated cells are still 9. Water retting seemed to take less time and the fibres were brighter and more uniform, than those achieved with dew retting. The chemical retting was done by soaking hemp bark in 2% NaOH at 120°C for 20 min under pressure. The broken stems are laid over an upright standing board, the scutching board, and then worked with a scutching knife (a flat usually narrow wooden board with a handle) to remove the shives. Knitting: The process of making fabric by forming a series of connected loops of yarn is called knitting. There are also differences in the order of the steps within each process. In terms of yield, this should be about 10-15% of weight of the dried plant left as long fibres (Dambroth and Seehuber, 1988, p.87; Schilling, 1935, p.33; Flad, 1984, p.24). Retting and microbial action on the plants will help dissolve the pectin and lignin that hold the fibres in the plants. It is not certain how old this method is, according to Dewilde it has been known since the 15th century (Dewilde, 1999, pp.80-81). In some areas, smoothing follows directly after breaking, cutting out the scutching step. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. When two sets of yarn are involved, yarns are woven on looms to make fabric. The coarse hackling comb was used for pulling out the short fibres while the finer comb separated fibres that were stuck together and smoothed them to get their final fineness (Becker, 1984, p.8; Schmitz, 1975, pp.9-11). A., 1989. I used the residual heat of a baking oven to dry my flax, which still held some moisture. A bundle of flax is placed between the upper and lower parts of the break and then struck with the upper section several times while slowly pulling the sheaf through. Vom Flachs zum Leinengarn. • Retting is completed within 7-9days in comparison to 18-21 days required under conventional whole plant retting. If you have any queries about republishing please contact us. Hagen, H. and Tödter, H., 1985. The Netherlands, Phone: +(31) 6 40263273 The simplest recorded method was to beat the bundles of flax against a wall to remove all the seed vessels (Hagen and Tödter, 1985, pp.25-26). This fresco depicts Christ during a feast surrounded by tools among which a flax break can be found. by ritaranipanigrahy_91662. Fibres are first converted to yarn by the process of spinning. Linke, W., 1982. The methods used in processing differed from area to area and not every step is present everywhere. JUTE FIBRE Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. ( Kaukonen, 1946 retting of fibres is done by p.80 ) out thinly and turned every day, while,! Was significantly lower, but the third woman seems to be different experiences, in (... Wind and injury fibres strive to conserve as much energy and waste during their production process, receiving... Its leaves handle made from willow vessels to remove shives and short fibres are... 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